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小作文考查应用性短文,包括私人和公务员信函、备忘录、报告、演讲稿等。应用性短文主要体现交际功能,体现交际内容的语句构成了应用文的主要框架,掌握交际用词和句式是小作文部分获得高分的关键。

1. 书信类应用文写作框架表达

应用文短文中书信类应用文是考查的重点。从共性来说,大部分书信类应用文体现的交际目的是:交流自己因某事物产生的某种情绪,重在阐述情绪衍生的相应行为。交际功能所传达的内容往往基于几种基础情绪:“欣喜、感动”;“喜欢、感兴趣”;“不喜欢、厌恶”;“困扰、担忧”;“惭愧、悔恨”;“悲伤、同情”。比如:2012 欢迎信考查了基于两种基础情绪的交际目的,即为留学生到来而 “高兴” 的衍生行为 – “欢迎” 和为留学生是否适应新生活而 “担忧” 的衍生行为 ~ “提建议”。以下是交流基础情绪过程中的常见表达。

1.1 交流欣喜、感动

第一步:再现感情

  1. It is a delight to do something

    例:It is a delight to have you as our schoolmates.

    很高兴你们成为我们的校友。(适用于 2012 真题)

  2. Undoubtedly, … give(s) me much delight/happiness/gladness/joy.

    例:Undoubtedly, your coming gives me much gladness.

    毫无疑问,你们的到来让我很高兴。(适用于 2012 真题)

第二步:阐述情绪的衍生行为

欣喜和感动是人在满足和幸福时所拥有的积极情绪,基于该情绪的常见行为有:“祝贺” ~ 为别人的幸福而高兴,“欢迎” ~ 为他人的到来高兴,以及感激 ~ 为他人曾经给自己的幸福而欣喜、感动。

表达 ”祝贺“ 的句式有

  1. I wish to heartily congratulate you on something / for doing something

    例:I wish to heartily congratulate you on your excellent exam results.

    我想对你考试取得的优异成绩表示真心祝贺。

  2. I want to express my heartfelt congratulations on something / doing something

    例:I want to express my heartfelt congratulations on your wining the prize.

    我想对你的获奖表达祝贺。

表达 ”欢迎“ 的句式有

  1. On behalf of …, I would like to extend an enthusiastic welcome to you.

    例:On behalf of all students, I would like to extend an enthusiastic welcome to you.

    我谨代表全体学生,向你们表示热烈欢迎(适用于 2012 真题)

  2. Welcome to …

    例:Welcome to China! Knowing that you love travel, I’d like to recommend some of the most celebrated tourist attractions in Beijing.

    欢迎来到中国!得知您酷爱旅游,我很乐意为您推荐北京几个最为著名的观光景点。(适用于 2017 真题)

表达 “感激” 的句式有

  1. Thank you very much for your …

    例:Thank you very much for your considerable support over the years.

    感谢你这么多年来对我的巨大支持。

  2. I feel deep gratitude to you for generously sharing your insightful ideas with me.

    你慷慨地与我分享有见地的思想,我很感激。

  3. appreciate the time and efforts you extended on …

    例:I appreciate the time and efforts you extended on alleviating my mental sufferings.

    我很感激你投入时间和精力减轻我的心理痛苦。

1.2 交流喜欢、感兴趣

第一步:再现感情

  1. I am especially fond of …

    例:I am especially fond of movies starring Will Smith.

    我特别新欢威尔·史密斯主演的电影。(适用于 2011 真题)

  2. I am intrigued by …

    例:I am intrigued by the newly-released film.

    我对这部新上映的电影非常感兴趣(适用于 2011 真题)

第二步:阐述情绪衍生行为

喜欢或感兴趣的常见衍生行为有:”推荐、邀请“ ~ 将喜欢或感兴趣的事物、活动介绍给朋友;”申请“ ~ 希望获得自己感兴趣的事物。

表达 ”推荐、邀请“ 的句式

  1. I can’t wait to / don’t hesitate to recommend to you …

    例:I can’t wait to recommend to you this film.

    我忍不住向你推荐这部电影。(适用于 2011 真题)

  2. … is recommendable for its good service.

    例:This hotel is recommendable for its good service.

    这家旅馆因其良好的服务而值得推荐。

  3. I want to especially / enthusiastically recommend … to you, because …

    例:I want to especially recommend this book to you, because it provides insightful guidelines on the life journey.

    我想向你特别推荐这本书,因为它对人生提供了有见地的指导。

  4. I would like to invite you to …

    例:I would like to invite you to judge our English speech contest from Match 1 to 3.

    我想邀请你担任三月一日至三日英语演讲比赛比赛的裁判。(适用于 2013 真题)

1.3 交流不喜欢、厌恶

第一步:再现感情

  1. I felt strong dislike / loathing as I found …

    例:I felt strong dislike as I found the shop the shop owner tried to secretly substitute fake products for qualified ones.

    当我发现这个商店老板试图悄悄用不及格产品代替合格商品时,我非常讨厌。

  2. I would like to express my disappointment / dissatisfaction at …

    例:I would like to express my dissatisfaction at the overcharged phone bill.

    我想表达对多收电话费的不满。

  3. I am extremely annoyed / irritated by …

    例:I am extremely annoyed by his poor service.

    我因他糟糕的服务而非常生气。

  4. I am deeply dissatisfied / disappointed with …

    例:I am deeply dissatisfied with the product.

    我对该产品十分不满。

  5. I am really annoyed / disappointed that …

    例:I am really disappointed that the historical sites in our city are being damaged during the urban construction.

    我们城市的古迹在城市建设过程中被毁坏,我真的很失望。

第二步:阐述衍生行为

不喜欢或缺乏兴趣的常见衍生行为有:”拒绝“ ~ 因不感兴趣而回绝;”辞职“ ~ 职业兴趣发生转移。厌恶导致的常见行为是投诉和揭露。

表示 ”拒绝“ 的句式如下

  1. I am afraid I have to decline …

    例:I am afraid I have to decline your invitation.

    恐怕我不得不拒绝你的邀请。

  2. … has no attraction for me.

    例:This lecture has no attraction for me.

    我对这个讲座一点兴趣都没有。

  3. … is not my desire.

    例:The book you recommended is not my desire.

    你推荐的这本书不是我想要的。

表达 ”辞职“ 的句式如下

  1. I am sorry to inform you that I will resign from …

    例:I am sorry to inform you that I will resign from the magazine Designs & Fashions.

    我很遗憾地通知您我将从 《设计·时尚》 杂志辞职。(适用于 2005 真题)

  2. After careful consideration, I have chosen to hand in my resignation.

    仔细考虑后,我选择辞职。(适用于 2005 真题)

  3. Painfully, I have made the decision to quit my job.

    满怀痛苦地,我下决心辞职。(适用于 2005 真题)

表示 ”投诉“、”揭露“ 的句式如下

  1. I’m writing to complain about …

    例:I’m writing to complain about the broken air-conditioning.

    我写信投诉损坏的空调。

  2. I feel compelled to expose …

    例:I feel compelled to expose the ugliness of the food industry.

    我认为我必须揭露食品行业的丑陋。

  3. … can no longer be tolerated.

    例:Jumping the queue can no longer be tolerated.

    不能再容忍插队了。

1.4 交流困扰、担忧

第一步:再现情感

  1. I am tortured by the confusion / anxiety about …

    例:I am tortured by the confusion about life and career choice.

    我对人生和职业选择感到困惑,深受折磨。

  2. I feel considerable concern for

    例:I feel considerable concern for overcrowding in school buses.

    我对校车拥挤的情况特别担心。

  3. I particularly worry / I’m particularly confused about …

    例:I am really worry about the deterioration of students’ physical condition.

    我对学生身体状况下降非常担心。(适用于 2014 真题)

  4. I am really anxious / worried that …

    例:I am really anxious that the environment will be severely damaged.

    我很担心环境会遭到严重破坏。(适用于 2009 真题)

第二步:阐述衍生行为

对某一情形感到忧虑时,人们倾向于对忧虑的情景提出改善建议。提出建议的相关表达将在大作文中具体介绍。对某一情形感到困惑,常见的衍生行为是寻求帮助。表达 ”求助“ 的重点句式有:

  1. Hopefully, you can help me …

    例:Hopefully, you can help me solve this problem.

    希望你能帮助我解决这个问题。(适用于 2006 真题)

  2. I want to get detailed guide on how to …

    例:I want to get detailed guide on how to decide on my career direction.

    我想得到关于如何确定职业方向的详细指导。

1.5 交流惭愧、悔恨

第一步:再现情感

  1. I am deeply ashamed that …

    例:I am deeply ashamed that I have caused you a big trouble.

    给你造成了很大的麻烦,我很惭愧。(适用于 2008 真题)

  2. I feel extremely embarrassed / guilty at doing something.

    例:I feel extremely embarrassed / guilty at putting you to great inconvenience.

    给你造成巨大不便,我非常难堪。(适用于 2008 真题)

  3. I deeply regret doing something / that …

    例:I deeply regret that I didn’t follow your advice.

    我非常后悔没有听你的建议。

  4. I feel a deep sense of shame / guilt, when I think about …

    例:I feel a deep sense of shame, when I think about my rash behavior.

    想起我鲁莽的行为,我十分惭愧。(适用于 2008 真题)

  5. I suffer extreme embarrassment at doing something.

    例:I suffer extreme embarrassment at uttering such annoying words.

    对说出如此恼人的话,我非常难堪。

  6. I am consumed with guilt / regret about something.

    例:I am consumed with guilt about what I have done.

    对于我所做的事情,我充满负罪感。

第二步:阐述衍生行为

由惭愧、悔恨的情绪直接导致的行为是道歉。表达 ”道歉“ 的重点句式有

  1. It was really inconsiderate to do something. Please accept my sincere apology.

    例:It was really inconsiderate to keep you waiting. Please accept my sincere apology.

    让你们久等确实考虑不周。请接受我诚挚的歉意。

  2. I sincerely apologize for …

    例:I sincerely apologize for misunderstanding your kindness.

    误解了你的好意,我深表款意。

  3. I feel extremely sorry for …, and hope you can forgive me.

    例:I feel extremely sorry for making you slip behind schedule and hope you can forgive me.

    非常抱款耽误了你的进度,希望你能原谅我。

  4. I am indeed to be blamed for …

例:I am indeed to be blamed for being so impulsive.

我那么冲动,确实应该受到指责。

  1. I promise that this kind of behavior will never happen again.

    我保证这样的行为不会再发生。(适用于 2008 真题)

1.6 交流悲伤、同情

第一步:再现感情

  1. I was unbearably sad to hear that …

    例:I was unbearably sad to hear that your mother died several days ago.

    听说你母亲几天前去世了,我非常难过。

  2. I feel immensely sad / sympathetic about …

    例:I feel immensely sympathetic about your encountering a big obstacle in your career.

    你在职业生涯中遇到了巨大的障碍,我非常同情。

  3. I am really sad that …

例:I am really sad that your school has been destroyed by the hurricane.

你们的学校被风摧毁了,我很难过。

  1. I am full of deep sadness / sympathy at hearing that

    例:I am full of deep sadness at hearing that the big earthquake has caused great losses to your city.

    说大地震给你的城市带来了巨大损失,我非常难过。

  2. I feel great sadness / sorrow / grief at …

    例:I feel great sorrow at your unfortunate failure.

    我为你不幸的失败感到伤心。

  3. I would like to express my sadness / sorrow / grief at

    例:I would like to express my grief at your mental torture.

    你正遭受心理上的折磨,我很难过。

  4. I wish to extend my heartfelt sympathy to you.

    我深深地同情你的遭遇。

第二步:阐述衍生行为

基于悲伤和同情的常见行生行为有:慰问陷入困境的人以及向他们提供帮助。

表达 ”慰问“ 的句式有

  1. The merciless … has destroyed … . Consolingly … will feel no loneliness in the combat against disaster.

    例:The merciless poverty has destroyed her dream to go to school. Consolingly, she will feel no loneliness in the combat against the disaster.

    无情的贫困毁了她上学的梦想。令人略觉安慰的是在与灾难斗争的过程中她并不孤单。(适用于 2006 真题)

  2. This must be a difficult time for you to go through but I will not leave you suffering helplessly alone.

    这段时间对你来说应该很艰难,但我不会让你独自一人无助地受折磨。

  3. My regard and love will accompany you all the time.

    我的关心和爱将一直陪伴着你。

表达 ”提供帮助“ 的句式有

  1. I will provide … with … able to help. 例:I will provide her with a financial assistance plan able to help her complete her study.

    我将提供给能帮助她完成学业的资助计划。(适用于 2006 真题)

  2. I’m / We are willing to extend my / our hands to help …

    例:We are willing to extend our hands to help you recover from the fail.

    我们愿意帮助你从失败振作起来。

  3. Hopefully, I will have a chance to help …

    例:Hopefully, I will have a chance to help the dropout girl return to school.

    希望我有机会帮助这名学女童重返校园。(适用于 2006 真题)

2. 公务类应用文写作框架表达

交流公务时大多不涉及到情绪的交流,只需交代所需执行的事件。常见的公务信包括介绍信、信息确认信、预定信等。需要掌握的重点句式有:

  1. Please allow me to introduce …, the bearer(s) of this letter, who…

    例:Please allow me to introduce George, the bearer of this letter, who is the most excellent teacher in our Institute.

    请允许我介绍乔治,持这封信的人,他是我们学院最优秀的老师。

  2. Please consider this letter as my formal acceptance.

    请将这封信视为我正式的接受。

  3. I would like to book / reserve …

    例:I would like to book a table for two in your restaurant tomorrow night.

    我想明天晚上在你的饭店里订下两人的席位。

  4. As you have mentioned, I will …

    例:As you have mentioned, I will check in about 13:00 tomorrow.

    正如您所说,我将在明天 13 点左右入住。

  5. Please kindly do …

    例:Please kindly arrange the meeting.

    请安排下这个会议。

  6. I would prefer … to be as … as possible.

    例:I would prefer seats to be as close to window as possible.

    我希望座位尽可能靠窗。

  7. Enclosed is my check / cash of … , as a deposit.

    例:Enclosed is my cash of 200 yuan, as a deposit.

    附上 200 元现金,作为订金。

  8. Please send me a written confirmation of this reservation by … via the email:

    例:Please send me a written confirmation of reservation by March 6 via the email: Liming@yahoo.com.cn.

    请在 3 月 6 日之前将这次预定的确认信寄到:Liming@yahoo.com.cn。

  9. If there is anything I need to … for … , please let me know.

    例:If there is anything I need to provide for confirmation, Please let me know.

    如果需要我提供什么以供确认,请告诉我。

3. 其它应用文的写作框架

其它应用文包括通知、海报、启事、便条、备忘录、报告、工作总结、读后感、演讲稿等。按照它们写作内容的风格和交际目的,可以分为告知类应用文、总结类应用文、报告类应用文和演讲类应用文。

3.1 告知类应用文的相关表达

常见的告知类应用文包括通知、海报、启事、便条,它们的交际目的多表现为激发对方关注、参与或采取你所希望的行动。

激发对方关注的重点句式

  1. Please pay close attention to this announcement.

    请密切关注这个启事。(适用于 2010 真题)

  2. … requires your attention.

例:The spreading virus requires your attention.

正在传播的疾病需要你的关注。

激发对方参与的重点句式

  1. Now, there comes an opportunity to … and it is wise for you to take it.

    例:Now, there comes an opportunity to work in the internationally famous company and it is wise for you to take it.

    现在有在这世界闻名的公司工作的机会,抓住这个机会方为明智之举。

  2. What a great chance it is to …! To seize such a marvelous opportunity, you just need to …

    例:What a great chance it is to display your talents! To seize such a marvelous opportunity, you just need to send your resume to our office in room 302 of the Teaching Building 5 before Feb. 12, 2010.

    多么好的展示才华的机会啊!要抓住这个绝妙机会,你只需于 2010 年 2 月 12 日前将简历寄到我们办公室:5 号教学楼,302 室。(适用于 2010 真题)

  3. Don’t miss the opportunity of … If you want to … please do …

    例:Don’t miss the opportunity of having a special Christmas night. If you want to attend our party, please sign up on our website www.ABCedu.com.cn before 15 Dec. 2012.

    不要错过拥有特别圣诞夜的机会。如果你想参加我们的聚会,请于 2012 年 12 月 15 日之前在网站 www.ABCedu.com.cn 报名。

  4. … are warmly welcomed to …

    例:Students are warmly welcomed to sign up for this course.

    欢迎同学们选择这门课。

激发对方采取所希望行为的重点句式

  1. I post this notice in the hope that …

    例:I post this notice in the hope that students can do as follows to prevent a disease outbreak on our campus.

    现在我贴出告知,希望学生们能做到下面几点,以防止疾病在校园里爆发。

  2. Hopefully, you / people who … can …

    例:Hopefully, you can make good preparations for this approaching exhibition.

    希望你们能为即将到来的展览,做好充分的准备。

  3. You are required / expected to …

    例:You are required to complete your papers before May 5, 2012.

    要求你们在 2012 年 5 月 5 日前完成论文。

3.2 总结类应用文的相关表达

常见的总结类应用文包括工作总结、会议纪要、读后感等。它们的交际目的首先是通过对事件或观点的总结,使对方对情形和观点有大致了解;接着可能涉及对事件、观点的看法以及未来的部署。总结类应用文重点句式有:

  1. It is a summary for …

    例:It is a summary for the meeting held yesterday.

    这是昨天会议的总结。

  2. The main ideas / events / decisions deserving to be mentioned are that …

    The main ideas deserving to be mentioned are that fresh graduates can hardly have good start salaries and many college graduates choose to rely on parents’ financial support.

    值得提及的基本观点是:刚毕业的学生很难获得好的起薪,很多大学毕业生选择依赖父母的经济支持。

  3. We are glad to say that we have succeeded in …

    例:We are glad to say that we have succeeded in reaching some agreements.

    我们很高兴地宣布我们已经成功达成一些共识。

  4. How to … was not satisfactorily answered.

    例:How to study effectively was not satisfactorily answered.

    如何有效学习还没有令人满意的答案。

  5. Besides feeling proud of these great accomplishments / this great accomplishment, we should also concede that …

    例:Besides feeling proud of this great accomplishment, we should also concede that we have not had obvious competitive advantage.

    除了对这个成就感到满意,我们还应该承认我们还不具备明显竞争优势。

  6. Improvements / efforts should be made in … in the future.

    例:Improvements should be made in handling occasional emergencies in the future.

    今后在处理突发事件方面应该有所改进。

  7. This idea inspires me to …

    例:This idea inspires me to work more diligently.

    这个观点激励我更加努力工作。

  8. Personally, I think …

    例:Personally, I think young people should be treated as independent individuals.

    我个人认为年轻人应该被视为独立的人。

3.3 报告类应用文的相关表达

常见的报告类应用文包括备忘录、调查报告、策划方案等。它们的交际目的多为告诉对方自己的计划、结论。写作这类应用文时,有时会涉及对相关现象的分析,相关表达参考大作文。报告类应用文的重点句式有:

  1. To find out features of and reasons behind / solutions to … , we conducted a survey on …

    例:To find out features of and solutions to white pollution, we conducted a survey on white pollution in daily life.

    为了找到白色污染的特点和解决方法,我们开展了针对日常生活中的白色污染的调查。

  2. The survey of … on … suggests that …

    例:The survey of 1000 students on attitude towards learning suggests that the majority of students are learning for short-term goals.

    对学生学习观念的调查表明大部分学生正为了短期目标学习。

  3. … % respondents said / reported that …

    例:56% respondents said that they had enormous financial and emotional stress.

    56% 的受访者表示他们有沉重的经济和精神压力。

  4. These findings indicate that …

    例:These findings indicate that college students have little awareness of career planning.

    这些发现表明大学生对职场规划几乎没有认识。

  5. We are going to launch … and detailed plans are as follows.

    例:We are going to launch a series of lectures and detailed plans are as follows.

    我们计划举办一系列的讲座,详细的安排如下。

  6. … have / has been scheduled.

    例:An academic exhibition has been scheduled.

    计划举办一场学术展览。

  7. … are required to take part in / participate in …

    例:All members are required to take part in the preparation for the sports meeting.

    要求所有成员参与运动会的准备。

  8. Other creative thoughts and brilliant ideas about the activity plan will be encouraged.

    大家可以提出其它关于活动计划的创意和好点子。

3.4 演讲类应用文的相关表达

演讲类应用文即演讲稿,是对自己观点、情感、态度的口头表达。其话题多样,内容上与书信类应用文的情感表达和大作文的话题表达具有一些共性。演讲类应用文重点句式有:

  1. It is my great honor to give a speech here.

    很荣幸能在此演讲。

  2. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to stand here.

    感谢你们给我站在这的机会。

  3. At first, please allow me, on behalf of the hosts, to express a heartfelt welcome to all of you.

    首先,请允许我代表主办方对你们的到来表达诚挚的欢迎。

  4. At first, please allow me to express my heartfelt … and my sincere admiration for …

    例:At first, please allow me to express my heartfelt congratulations on your graduation and my sincere admiration for the considerable academic progress you have achieved here.

    首先,请允许我对你们毕业表示由衷的祝贺,并且对你们在这取得的巨大学术进步表达诚挚的敬意。

  5. … , the topic today, is interesting and meaningful.

    今天的话题 …… 有趣且有意义。

  6. Hopefully, my words can bring some inspiration. Thank you all.

    希望我的话能有所启迪,谢谢大家。