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近十年大作文均是对图画作文进行考查,图片描写段落外的写作脉络主要是两种,围绕 “问题” 展开或围绕 “价值” 展开。

1. 围绕 “问题” 的表达储备

当话题针对遭到批判的社会现象时,描写段落外的部分通常围绕 “问题” 展开,一般涉及对问题的阐述、问题原因及影响的探讨以及解决方法的提出;当话题针对有利有弊的社会现象时,对弊端的阐述也遵循同样的写作方式。按照该写作脉络顺利成文需要积累陈述问题、分析问题、解决问题的相关表达。

1.1 陈述问题相关表达

在对问题进行阐述时,往往包括指明问题、介绍问题背景及例证问题。

(一)指出问题的重点句式

  1. Nowadays, people encounter / are confronted with a problem that …

    例:Nowadays, people encounter a problem that commodity prices are on the rise.

    现在人们面临着消费品价格上涨的问题。

  2. There is growing public anxiety over …

    例:There is growing public anxiety over air pollution in cities.

    大家对城市空气污染情况越来越担心。

  3. The is an intense debate over the phenomenon of / that …

    例:The is an intense debate over the phenomenon of unfair recruitment.

    存在对不公平的招聘这个现象的激烈讨论。

  4. The problem about / that … is increasingly common.

    例:The problem about pollution in scenic spots is increasingly common.

    景区污染的问题越来越普遍。(适用于 2012 真题)

  5. … is prevalent / widespread among …

    例:Internet addiction is prevalent among young people.

    网瘾在年轻人身上很普遍(适用于 2009 真题)

  6. … is / are subjected to a tough test.

    例:Traditional family ties and loyalties are subjected to a tough test.

    传统的家庭关系受到严峻的考验(适用于 2005 真题)

  7. … are harassed by …

    例:Students are harassed by heavy study load.

    学生被沉重的学习负担折磨。

(二)介绍问题背景的重点句式

  1. Nowadays, people enjoy an increasingly convenient / comfortable life brought by …

    例:Nowadays, people enjoy an increasing convenient life brought by computer technology.

    现在人们享受着电脑技术带来的越来越方便的生活。(适用于 2009 真题)

  2. In the quickly-paced society, people tend to …

    例:In the quickly-paced society, people tend to face heavier physical and emotional pressure.

    在快节奏的社会里,人们倾向于面对更大的生理、心理负担。

  3. A troublesome / worrying / disturbing trend towards … is emerging.

    例:A worrying trend towards an aging society is emerging.

    步入老年社会这个令人担心的趋势正显现出来。

  4. There is a growing tendency for somebody to do … over the recent years.

    例:There is a growing tendency for parents to compel their children to receive extracurricular training over the recent years.

    最近几年,家长强迫孩子接受课外培训呈上涨趋势。

  5. While … are enriched / developed significantly with the development of the society, … instead of improving correspondingly, deteriorates seriously.

    例:While options for foods are enriched significantly with development of the society, food quality, instead of instead of improving correspondingly, deteriorates seriously.

    虽然随着社会进步食品的种类大大丰富,但是食品质量没有相应提高,反而严重下降了。

(三)例证问题的重点句式

  1. … clearly illustrate(s) this point.

    例:The event of September 11 clearly illustrates this point.

    9.11 实践清楚地说明了这一点。

  2. Let’s illustrate … with …

    例:Let’s illustrate team spirit with a basketball team.

    让我们以篮球队为例说明团队精神。(适用于 2008 真题)

  3. It is not rare to find people who …

    例:It is not rare to find people who choose to create their own businesses after graduation.

    毕业后创业的人不少。

  4. According to a recent survey …

    例:According to a recent survey, the overwhelming majority of urban citizens are under considerable pressure.

    根据最近的调查,绝大多数城镇居民处于巨大压力下。

  5. The latest survey shows that …

    例:The latest survey shows that an increasing number of Chinese senior high school students are sent abroad for study.

    最近的调查表明越来越多的中国高中生被送到国外学习。

1.2 分析问题的相关表达

分析问题主要涉及到对原因和结果的分析。

(一)分析原因的相关表达

指出原因的重点句式有如下:

  1. There are several driving forces behind this trend.

    这个趋势背后有一些原因。

  2. A possible / convincing reason for … is that …

    例:A possible reason for people’s hesitancy to help aging people in trouble is that there is a risk of being wronged as offenders.

    人们对帮助遇到困难的老人感到迟疑的原因是,有被冤枉成肇事者的风险。

  3. The / One plausible explanation for … is that …

    例:One plausible explanation for health declining with age is that men tend to markedly reduce their physical activity with retirement.

    健康状况随年龄增大而变差的一个原因是人们退休后会大幅度减少他们的体育活动。

  4. … is the key contributor to …

    例:Pursuit of benefits is the key contributor to the flooding of advertisements.

  5. … is mainly / radically responsible for …

    例:Vehicle emission is mainly responsible for urban air pollution.

    车辆废气是城市空气污染的主要原因。

  6. … is generally / commonly attributed to …

    例:The fall in the number of deaths from heart disease is generally attributed to improvements in diet.

    心脏病死亡人数的下降普遍归结为饮食的改善。

  7. What makes … is that …

    例:What makes some young people shirk responsibility towards their parents is that those young people think only about their own comfort.

    使一些年轻人逃避对父母的责任的原因是,那些年轻人只考虑他们自己的舒适。(适用于 2005 年真题)

  8. Many factors could contribute to … but one deserves special mention: …

    例:Many factors could contribute to excessively high commodity prices but one deserves special mention: unwise economic policies.

    很多因素会导致物价过高,但值得特别提出的一点是不明智的经济政策。

问题产生的十大原因如下:

  1. The local administration bureau fails to exercise effective / strict supervision.

    当地的管理部门没有进行有效 / 严厉的监管(适用于 2011 真题)

  2. There are no effective / strict regulation on …

    例:There are no strict regulations on environmental protection.

    缺乏环保的严厉法规。(适用于 2001 真题)

  3. Social morality declines.

    社会道德衰退。

  4. Mutual trust has been gradually lost. 人们之间已经失去了相互信任。

  5. … lack the sense of social responsibility.

    例:Some tourists lack the sense of social responsibility.

    一些游客缺乏社会责任感。(适用于 2011 真题)

  6. … are obsessed / preoccupied with economic benefits / fame / short-term growth / one’s own comfort and benefits.

    例:Young people are obsessed with their own comfort and benefits.

    年轻人沉迷于自己的舒适和利益。(适用于 2005 真题)

  7. … wish to escape from heavy economic / economic / emotional pressure. (或:… are under heavy economic / emotional pressure.)

    例:Today’s young generation wishes to escape from heavy economic and emotional pressure.

    现在的年轻人希望逃避沉重的经济和精神压力。(适用于 2009 真题)

  8. People haven’t realized the importance / disastrous consequences of …

    例:People haven’t realized the disastrous consequences of gradually common elder abuse.

    人们还没有意识到逐渐普遍的虐待老人现象的灾难性后果。(适用于 2005 真题)

  9. People hope to depend on … to impress others / gratify their own vanity.

    例:Young people hope to depend on the appearance similar to stars to impress others.

    年轻人希望依靠与明星相似的外貌给别人留下印象(适用于 2006 真题)

  10. The development of technology makes it possible to …

    例:The development of technology makes it possible to communicate without face to face. 技术的发展使不用面对面的交流成为可能。(适用于 2009 真题)

(二)分析影响或结果的相关表达

指出影响或结果的重点句式有:

  1. … bring about a damaging impact on / exert a disastrous influence on …

    例:Urban construction brings about a damaging impact on historical sites.

    城市建设给文化遗迹造成了破坏性影响。

  2. If no effective remedy were introduced, it would become difficult for … to …

    例:If no effective remedy were introduced, it would become difficult for people to live a safe and comfortable life.

    如果没有采取有效措施,人们会发现很难过上安全、舒适的生活。

  3. If the situation continues, … will … in the long run.

    例:If the situation continues, nature will lose its balance in the long run.

    如果情况持续,自然最终会失去平衡。(适用于 2011 真题)

  4. 主句称述现象,which 引导的非限制性定语从句说明结果。

    例:More and more natural resources are occupied by humans, which threatens existence of wild species.

    越来越多的自然资源被人类占用,这威胁了野生动物的生存。

  5. 主句称述现象,现在分词状语说明结果。

    例:Those substances will spread to soil, water as well as air, making lands used to bury or compile e-waste completely barren and desolate.

    这些物质会在土壤、水、空气中扩散,使用来掩埋或堆砌电子垃圾的土地完全荒芜。

问题产生的十大影响如下:

  1. … has caused huge economic / environmental / cultural losses.

    例:Deforestation has caused huge environmental losses.

    砍伐森林在环境层面造成了巨大损失。

  2. … are putting people’s lives / property at risk.

    例:Buildings of poor quality are putting people’s lives at risk.

    质量差的建筑将人们的生命置于危险境地。

  3. … deprives … of the chance / opportunity / right to …

    例:Unfair recruitment deprives capable people without privileged background of the chance to get great career opportunities.

    不公平的招聘剥夺了没有显赫背景的能人获得好的职场机会的可能。

  4. … will distract one from one’s work / study.(或 … will dampen one’s enthusiasm for …)

    例:Blind pursuit of stars will distract students from study.

    盲目追星会使学生学习分心。(适用于 2006 真题)

  5. … will break the ecological balance.

    例:Rounding up wild animals will break the ecological balance.

    围猎野生动物会打破生态平衡。

  6. … will endanger social stability and safety 或 … will jeopardize safety and stability of the society

    例:The increasingly serious food quality problem will endanger social stability and safety.

    日益严重的食品质量问题会危害社会稳定和安全。

  7. … will lead to degradation of social atmosphere.(或 … will poison social atmosphere)

    例:Greediness for wealth will poison social atmosphere.

    对财富的贪婪污染了社会风气。

  8. … will hamper / impede / halt the development of …

    例:Lack of face-to-face communication will hamper the development of interpersonal relationship.

    缺乏面对面交流会阻碍人际关系的发展。(适用于 2009 真题)

  9. … does harm to one’s healthy growth and makes one unable to stand oneself in good stead in the competitive society.

    例:Lacking honesty does harm to a company’s healthy growth and makes it unable to stand itself in good stead in the competitive society.

    缺乏诚信对一个公司的健康发展有害,会使公司不能在竞争激烈的社会中立足。

  10. … will make it impossible to effectively / radically solve existing problems.

    例:Any attempt to evade responsibility will make it impossible to effectively solve existing problems.

    任何逃避责任的企图都将会导致不能有效地解决现有问题。

1.3 解决问题的相关表达

(一)提出措施的重点句式

  1. Efforts should be taken to avoid such a(n) disastrous / unfortunate effect.

    应该采取措施避免如此灾难性的 / 不幸的后果。

  2. It is suggested that … / to do …

    例:It is suggested that the plan be sufficiently flexible, to allow for possible changes.

    人们建议计划应该有足够的灵活性,能够进行一些调整。

  3. A(n) feasible / effective / The radical solution is to …

    例:The radical solution is to reconstruct the a atmosphere of emphasizing honesty.

    根本措施是重建强调诚信的氛围。

  4. It is high time to do … / It is high time that … did …

    例:It is high time to ban smoking from all public places. No-one has any right to damage or hurt other people.

    该是禁止在所有公共场所吸烟的时候了。没有人有权利毁坏或者伤害他人。

  5. … can be a therapy for …

    例:Joining a club can be a therapy for loneliness.

  6. Hopefully, through … , … can be achieved / created.

    例:Hopefully, through students’ participation, better school atmosphere can be created.

    希望通过学生的参与能塑造更好的学习氛围。

(二)针对问题的十大措施

  1. The officers should offer effective supervision and impose harsh punishment on those who …

    例:They officers should offer effective supervision and impose harsh punishment on those who pollute scenic spots.

    官员应该有效监管并严惩污染景区的人。(适用于 2011 真题)

  2. Necessary laws and regulations should be adopted and enforced to protect one’s benefits.

    例:Necessary laws and regulations should be adopted and enforced to protect aged peoples’ benefits.

    应该采用并加强必要的法律法规,保护老年人的利益。

  3. Moral education should be promoted and laws and regulations should be tightened to ensure that … fully take responsibility towards somebody / for something.

    例:Moral education should be promoted and laws and regulations should be tightened to ensure that young people fully take responsibility towards their parents.

    应该努力推广道德教育,并严格法律法规,以确保年轻人充分履行对父母的义务。(适用于 2005 真题)

  4. The department concerned should strengthen the management of … procedure.

    例:The department concerned should strengthen the management of producing procedure.

    相关部门需要加强对生产过程的管理。

  5. We should make a reform on the current … system / current methods of …

    例:We should make a reform on current methods of creating superstars.

    我们应该对当今塑造明星的方式进行改革。(适用于 2006 真题)

  6. People should regulate their own behaviors and prevent others’ improper conducts.

    人们应该规范自己的行为,并阻止他人的不合适行为。(适用于 2011,2006,2005 真题)

  7. … should be encouraged to bravely fight against … by using the legal weapons.

    例:The aged people should encouraged to fight against mistreatment

    应该鼓励老人勇敢地运用法律武器与虐待行为进行斗阵。(适用于 2005 真题)

  8. People should be educated to realize the value of … and voluntarily protect / promote / seek / adopt / practice it. 或:People should be educated to realize the importance of … and then act on that knowledge.

    例:People should be educated to realize the value of a trust-worthy economic and social environment and voluntarily protect it.

    应该教育人们,使人们意识到值得信赖的经济和社会环境的价值,并自觉保护它。

  9. … should be encouraged to expand income channels to avoid only depending on … for their revenue.

    例:Tour guides should be encouraged to expand income channels to avoid only depending on tourists’ purchases for their revenue.

    应该鼓励导游拓宽收入渠道,从而避免仅仅依靠游客消费来创收。

  10. … should be controlled within a reasonable range with effective measures.

    例:The admiration should be controlled within a reasonable range with effective measures.

    应采取有效措施将崇拜控制在合理的范围内(适用于 2006 真题)

2. 围绕 “价值” 相关的表达储备

当话题针对积极正面的社会现象或者人生哲理时,描写段落外的部分通常围绕现象或哲理的 “价值” 展开,涉及对价值的探讨和如何践行的死锁,另外当话题针对有利有弊的社会现象时,对有利一面的阐述也需要借助该思路。按照该写作脉络成文需要积累称述对人生、社会发展产生积极作用的相关表达并且对精彩实例进行储备。

2.1 阐述价值的重点句式

  1. The spirit advocated in the 21st century is one of …

    例:The spirit advocated in the 21st century is one of cooperation and coexistence.

    21 世纪提倡的精神是合作和共存。(适用于 2008 真题)

  2. … is similar to / bears close resemblances to …

    例:Pursuing knowledge is similar to climbing a mountain.

    追求知识与爬山相似。

  3. This philosophy can insightfully explain why it is (not) a wise idea to …

    例:This philosophy can insightfully explain why it is a wise idea to constantly pursue self-improvement.

    这个哲理有见地地解释了为什么坚持提升自己是个明智的想法。(适用于 2004 真题)

  4. … is the pyramidal cornerstone for success and also the source of real happiness.

    例:Keeping optimistic is the pyramidal cornerstone for success and also the source of real happiness.

    保持乐观是所有成功的即使,也是真正幸福的来源。(适用于 2012 真题)

  5. … is the first step on the road to success.

    例:Self-confidence is the first step on the road to success.

    自信是走向成功之路的第一步。(适用于 2007 真题)

  6. … can help a person establish ambitious life goals, overcome obstacles and then achieve ultimate success.

    例:The spirit of moving forward can help a person establish ambitious life goals, overcome obstacles and then achieve ultimate success.

    向前的精神能帮助一个人建立远大的人生目标,战胜挫折并获得最终成功。(适用于 2004 真题)

  7. … is a basic requirement for a company, a nation or a person to succeed in this high-paced / fiercely competitive society.

    例:Cooperation is a basic requirement for a company, a nation or a person to succeed in this fiercely competitive society.

    合作是一个公司、国家或者个人在这个竞争激烈的社会成功的基本要求。(适用于 2008 真题)

  8. … can enable a person / a company / a nation to … , which can ensure his great and lasting success / its sustainable progress.

    例:Having harmonious family relationship can enable a person to work energetically at his career, which can ensure his great and lasting success.

    拥有和谐的家庭关系能使一个人充满激情地为事业工作,这能确保他获得巨大且持续的成功。(适用于 2014 真题)

  9. … will facilitate the growth of a person / a company / a nation, thereby making it more likely for him / it to be the winner in the competitive world. 或:… contributes to modernization of … , thereby making it more likely for him / it to be the winner in the competitive world.

    例:Cultural blending will facilitate the growth of a nation, thereby making it more likely for it to be the winner in the competitive world.

    文化融合能促进一个国家的发展,因此让这个国家更有可能在竞争性的世界中获胜。(适用于 2010 真题)

  10. … can ensure that people / companies / nations efficiently and correctly complete their missions and make great contributions to the society.

    例:Cooperation can ensure that people efficiently and correctly complete their missions and make great contributions to the society.

    合作能确保人们快速并正确地实现他们的使命,为社会做出巨大的贡献。(适用于 2008 真题)

  11. … will be helpful in improving living standards / interpersonal relationship / civic morality and then creating aa vibrant and harmonious society.

    例:Promotion of respect for aged parents will be helpful in improving civic morality and then creating a vibrant and harmonious society.

    提倡尊敬年迈父母有助于改善公民素质,从而建设充满活力的和谐社会。(适用于 2014 真题)

2.2 表达如何践行的重要句式

  1. We should stick to the belief that …

    例:We should stick to the belief that diligence is the mother of success.

    我们应该坚持勤奋是成功之母的信念。

  2. It is important and necessary to … Therefore, we should remind ourselves to cease concentrating upon … and instead focus on …

    例:It is important and necessary to draw a lesson from adversity. Therefore, we should remind ourselves to cease concentrating upon the pain adversity brings us and instead focus on what adversity tries to teach us.

    从失败中学习是重要且必要的。因此,我们应该提醒自己停止将注意力集中在失败带给我们的痛苦上,而是应该关注失败试图教会我们的东西。(适用于 2012 真题)

  3. If a person / a nation / a company desires to achieve his / its own success, he / it should …

    例:If a person desires to achieve his own success, he should keep his dream alive.

    如果一个人想要获得自己的成功,他应该坚守自己的梦想。

  4. We should realize the importance of … and then act on that knowledge.

    例:We should realize the importance of cultural interaction and then act on that knowledge.

    我们应该意识到文化交流的重要性,并根据这样的认识采取相应的行动。(适用于 2010 真题)

  5. Only through … , can individuals advance steadily and the Chinese nation achieve great rejuvenation.

    例:Only through continuing efforts, can individuals advance steadily and the Chinese nation achieve great rejuvenation.

    只有脚踏实地努力奋斗,个人才能取得稳定进步,中华民族才能实现伟大复兴。(适用于 2017 真题)